Standard Test Method for Thermal Transmittance of Textile Materials
This test method covers the determination of overall thermal transmission coefficients due to the combined action of conduction, convection, and radiation for dry specimens of textile fabrics, battings, and other materials. It measures the time rate of heat transfer from a warm, dry, constant-temperature, horizontal flat-plate up through a layer of the test material to a relatively calm, cool atmosphere.
Standard Test Method for Thermal Protective Performance of Materials for Protective Clothing for Hot Surface Contact
This test method can be used to quantify and compare the thermal insulation of materials used in protective clothing when exposed for a short period of time to a hot surface with a temperature up to 600°F (316°C).
Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate
The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by a fabric, batting, or other type of material is of considerable importance in determining its suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems. This test method covers the measurement of thermal resistance and evaporative resistance under steady-state conditions for fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, as used in clothing systems. The range of this measurement technique for thermal resistance is from 0.002 to 0.2 K-m2/W and for evaporative resistance is from 0.01 to 1.0 kPa-m2/W.
Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection Against Flash Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin
This test method can be used to measure and compare the thermal protection provided by different materials, garments, and clothing ensembles. This test method provides a measurement of garment and clothing ensemble performance on a stationary upright manikin that characterize the performance of single layer garments or protective clothing ensembles in a simulated flash fire environment having controlled heat flux, flame distribution, and duration.
Heat transmitted to each sensor location on the surface of an instrumented manikin is converted to show the corresponding predicted degree of burn injury to human tissue. The sum of these values can then be converted to a percentage to show the total area of predicted burn injury.
Standard Test Method for Radiant Heat Resistance of Flame Resistant Clothing Materials with Continuous Heating
This test method evaluates a material's heat transfer properties when exposed to a continuous and constant radiant heat source. The specimen is maintained in a static, vertical position and it can be tested under two standard sets of exposure conditions: 21 kW/m2 [0.5 cal/cm2s] and 84 kW/m2 [2.0 cal/cm2s]. Either can be used. The test rates the non-steady state thermal resistance or insulating characteristics of flame resistant clothing materials subjected to a continuous, standardized radiant heat exposure.
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Thermal Insulation of Clothing Using a Heated Manikin
This test method can be used to quantify and compare the insulation provided by different clothing systems. The effects of garment layering, closure, and fit can be measured for clothing ensembles. The insulation values for ensembles can be used in models that predict the physiological responses of people in different environmental conditions.
This test method covers the determination of the insulation value of clothing ensembles. It describes the measurement of the resistance to dry heat transfer from a heated manikin to a relatively calm, cool environment. This is a static test that provides a baseline clothing measurement on a standing manikin, and the effects of body position and movement are not addressed in this test method.
Standard Test Method for Measuring Thermal Insulation of Sleeping Bags Using a Heated Manikin
This test method can be used to quantify and compare the insulation provided by sleeping bags or sleeping bag systems. It can be used for material and design evaluations. This test method can determine the insulation value of a sleeping bag or sleeping bag system. It measures the resistance to dry heat transfer from a constant skin temperature manikin to a relatively cold environment.
The insulation values obtained apply only to the sleeping bag, as tested, and for the specified thermal and environmental conditions of each test, particularly with respect to air movement past the manikin.
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Using a Sweating Manikin
This test method can be used to quantify and compare the evaporative resistance provided by different clothing systems. The evaporative resistance values for ensembles measured under isothermal conditions can be used in models that predict the physiological responses of people in different environmental conditions.
It describes the measurement of the resistance to evaporative heat transfer from a heated sweating thermal manikin to a relatively calm environment. It specifies the configuration of sweating thermal manikin, test protocol, and test conditions.
Standard Test Method for Measuring the Heat Removal Rate of Personal Cooling Systems Using a Sweating Heated Manikin
This test method can be used to quantify and compare the cooling provided by different Personal Cooling Systems (PCS’s) worn with a standard outer garment or other specified clothing. The test method is intended to allow garments based on various cooling technologies to be evaluated fairly and objectively, by taking into account convective and evaporative heat transfer.
This test method requires the use of a sweating heated manikin. The sweating capability is essential, to take into account the potentially large fraction of heat dissipation associated with evaporative cooling. This test method covers the measurement of heat removal rate from a sweating heated manikin as well as the duration of cooling provided by a cooling garment, in order to assess the effectiveness of a PCS.
Standard Test Method for Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Evaluation of Flame Resistant Materials for Clothing with Continuous Heating
This test method measures the non-steady state heat transfer through flame resistant materials for clothing subjected to a continuous, combined convective and radiant heat exposure. The test standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
Standard Test Method for Radiant Heat Performance of Flame Resistant Clothing Materials with Burn Injury Prediction
This test method is intended for the determination of the radiant heat performance value (RPP) of materials used in flame resistant clothing for workers exposed to radiant thermal hazards. The test specimen is maintained in a static, vertical position for the duration of the exposure procedure.
The test evaluates a material’s heat transfer properties when exposed to a heat exposure at a constant value and systematically varied durations. It also accounts for the thermal energy contained in the exposed test specimen after the radiant heat exposure has ceased. Higher values of Radiant Heat Performance rating determined in this test associate to higher values of radiant energy protection against a predicted skin burn injury.
Standard Test Method for Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Evaluation of Flame Resistant Materials for Clothing with Burn Injury Prediction
This test method determines the thermal performance estimate value (TPP) of materials used in flame resistant clothing for workers exposed to combined convective and radiant thermal hazards. This test method maintains the specimen in a static, horizontal position, and measures the non-steady state heat transfer through flame resistant clothing materials subjected to a combined convective and radiant heat exposure.
The test evaluates a material’s heat transfer properties when exposed to a heat exposure at a constant value and specific duration – then accounting for the thermal energy stored in the exposed test specimen after the heat exposure has ceased. Higher values of Thermal Performance Estimate ratings determined in this test associate to higher values of thermal (convective and radiative) energy protection against a predicted skin burn injury.
Stored Energy Test Standards
Firefighters are routinely exposed to radiant heat in the course of their activities, and in some cases, firefighters have reported burn injuries under clothing where there is no evidence of damage to the exterior or interior layers of the firefighter protective clothing. Low levels of transmitted radiant energy alone or a combination of the transmitted radiant energy and stored energy released through compression can be sufficient to cause these types of injuries. This test method was designed to measure both the transmitted and stored energy in firefighter protective clothing material systems under a specific set of laboratory exposure conditions.
This test method provides procedures for measuring the combination of transmitted and stored energy that occurs in firefighter protective clothing material systems as the result of exposure to prolonged, relatively low levels of radiant heat by applying a predetermined compressive load to a preheated specimen to simulate conductive heat transfer. Burn severity and time to burn predictions are calculated based on the collected data.
Ensembles and garments for protection against cold (walking manikin test)
This standard specifies requirements and test methods for evaluating the performance of clothing ensembles or single garments for protection against cold environments. Its scope does not specifically include headwear, footwear, or gloves but can consider them as part of the tested ensemble. A walking thermal manikin system is required to fully comply with the EN 342 standard.
Protective gloves against cold
This testing standard defines the requirements and methodology for evaluating gloves meant to protect against convective and conductive cold down to -50°C. Testing requires the use of a heated, full-scale (size 9) hand manikin capable of constant, uniform temperature generation over the entire hand surface. Ambient conditions must be maintained to ±1°C.
Thermal properties of Sleeping Bags
Describes a testing standard where a thermal manikin is used as a measuring device, positioned inside a sleeping bag and placed in controlled cold conditions. Thermal loss is measured when stationary conditions are reached and, applying the result of a calibration procedure, a standard thermal insulation value of the sleeping bag is determined. A physiological model is then applied which uses the standard thermal insulation value to calculate ambient conditions corresponding to a comfort/utility range for the sleeping bag.
Measurement of thermal and water-vapour resistance under steady-state conditions (sweating guarded-hotplate test)
This method of measurement applies to fabrics, films, coatings, foams and leather, including multilayer assemblies, for use in clothing, quilts, sleeping bags, upholstery and similar textile or textile-like products. Application is restricted to a maximum thermal resistance and water-vapour resistance which depend on the dimensions and construction of the apparatus used (e.g. 2 m2 K/W and 700 m2 Pa/W, respectively), for the minimum specifications of the equipment referred to.
Clothing for protection against heat and flame -- Determination of heat transmission on exposure to both flame and radiant heat
This standard specifies a test method for measuring the heat transfer of horizontally mounted flame-resistant textile materials when exposed to a combination of convective and radiant energy. This test method can be used for any type of textile or sheet material used either as a single layer or in a multilayer construction when the composite structure consists entirely of flame-resistant materials. It is not intended to be used on materials that are not flame resistant.
Measurement of thermal insulation by means of a thermal manikin
ISO 15831 describes the requirements of the thermal manikin and the test procedure used to measure the thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble, as it becomes effective for the wearer in practical use in a relatively calm environment, with the wearer either standing or moving.
Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting
This standard shall specify the minimum design, performance, testing, and certification requirements for structural fire fighting protective ensembles and ensemble elements that include coats, trousers, coveralls, helmets, gloves, footwear, and interface components. This standard specifies requirements for new structural fire fighting protective ensembles, new proximity fire fighting protective ensembles, or new elements for both ensembles.